Today I am going to talk about hydrogen fuel. So what will the topic of hydrogen fuel be so hot in the last two years? The background is that in December 2020, Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered an important speech at the Paris Climate Summit and announced a series of independent contributions from China. New initiatives. In the main theme of the conference: Strive to reach the peak of carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 and strive to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, Xi Jinping further announced that by 2030, China’s GDP carbon dioxide emissions will drop by more than 65% from 2005. Petrochemical energy will account for about 25% of primary energy consumption, forest accumulation will increase by 6 billion cubic meters over 2005, and the total installed capacity of wind power and solar power will reach more than 1.2 billion kilowatts.
The EU’s carbon dioxide emission regulations require a reduction of 15% in 2025 and 30% in 2030 based on carbon dioxide emissions in 2019. With the global consensus on reducing CO2 emissions, various alternative energy sources have been launched. As for China, which has more than 300 million traditional diesel locomotives, the amount of carbon dioxide emission reduction is huge, and the total amount of carbon dioxide emissions from heavy commercial vehicles is relatively large. This has given birth to a series of regulations and policies that will be introduced to reduce carbon emissions. We know that in the passenger vehicle field, hybrid and pure electric technology routes are now mainly used. As early as 2018, Nissan announced the suspension of the plan to develop fuel cell vehicles in cooperation with Daimler and Ford, focusing on the development of electric vehicles and passenger vehicles. Not suitable for hydrogen fuel cells, the cost alone is more than twice that of ordinary electric vehicles, and electric/hybrid vehicles have entered the mass production stage following the introduction of national policies. Commercial vehicles are very suitable for fuel cells, because trucks are large in size and can accommodate battery reactors and hydrogen storage tanks. In addition, hydrogen refueling stations cause high risks, and most of them are built along provincial highways and national highways. In the field of commercial industry, hydrogen fuel is the technological route currently being developed and ready to be used worldwide. Because the product of hydrogen fuel is water, no pollutants are discharged. As a new energy material, hydrogen fuel has two main types of utilization: one is to burn hydrogen directly, and the other is to use the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen to generate energy and store energy, that is, hydrogen fuel cells. The current mainstream is the hydrogen fuel cell route.
The principle of the hydrogen fuel cell is very simple. It uses hydrogen and oxygen to transfer electrons under the action of a catalyst to generate current in the circuit. The fuel cell does not pollute the environment. It is through electrochemical reaction, rather than using combustion (gasoline, diesel) or energy storage (battery)-the most typical traditional backup power solution. Combustion will release pollutants like COx, NOx, SOx gas and dust. As mentioned above, fuel cells only produce water and heat. If hydrogen is produced by renewable energy sources (photovoltaic panels, wind power generation, etc.), the entire cycle is a process that completely does not produce harmful emissions. At the same time, compared to directly burning hydrogen on the basis of internal combustion engines, hydrogen fuel cells have higher chemical energy conversion efficiency, because burning hydrogen will generate greater heat dissipation, and the thermal efficiency is only about 50%; if hydrogen is an on-board energy source, the storage tank The energy density of hydrogen as a whole is much lower than that of alternative fuels such as natural gas, petroleum gas, methanol.